spartina anglica polyploidy
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spartina anglica polyploidy

This young allopolyploid contains divergent homoeologous subgenomes that have not undergone significant changes since their reunion. An extensive survey of isozyme phenotypes in British populations of the amphidiploid salt marsh grass Spartina anglica and its putative parents has confirmed that the species arose by chromosome doubling in S. × townsendii, a sterile hybrid between S. maritima and S. alterniflora. Most of the alleles in the tetraploid matched those found in various populations of the diploid progenitors, supporting the hypothesis of multiple origins from genetically differentiated diploid populations. Spartina spartinae occurs in two disjunct areas in North – Central America and in South‐America. Salinity Effects on Germination and Plant Growth of Prairie Cordgrass and Switchgrass. In the other case, hybridization between more divergent species resulted in sterile hybrids and in a new invasive allopolyploid species that is genetically isolated from its parents. The absence of these fragments concern mostly those from the maternal parent S. alterniflora (Table 1), as they represent 87.5% of the parental fragments absent in S. × neyrautii (chi‐square = 27, df = 1, P < 0.001) and 89.7% of the parental fragments absent in S. × townsendii (chi‐square = 24.6, df = 1, P < 0.001). Note the prominent sheath of photosynthetic cells, characteristic of Kranz anatomy, around the vascular bundles in the maize leaf. discriminant) between the parental species S. maritima and S. alterniflora were first screened, and deviation from additivity (i.e. This low conductance reduces water loss and therefore unit carbon gain can be achieved for reduced water loss. The extent of the methylation polymorphism in different populations of the allopolyploid, the identification of the sequences that are affected by epigenetic changes, as well understanding the relative contributions of the homoelogous subgenomes to the transcriptome are important questions regarding the adaptive success of this new invasive species. This group includes the three known hexaploid species in the genus; Spartina foliosa, a species limited to the Pacific coast of North America; Spartina maritima, the only Old World species if we except recent taxa of hybrid origin (see below); and Spartina alterniflora, a variable species that is distributed along the east coast of North and South America. Villemin, Europôle de l’Arbois, BP 80 13545 Aix en Provence cedex 04, France; Institute of Ecology, Biology Building, University of Lausanne, CH‐1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. The tetraploid clade (Baumel et al., 2002a) is composed of five closely related species belonging to two sister groups. As most of the polymorphism results from presence/absence of a priming site, AFLP markers are usually considered as dominant. Recent studies indicated that allopolyploid speciation may be associated with rapid genetic and epigenetic changes. Extirpation of existing Spartina meadows has, however, been difficult, but containment and the removal of outliers has been achieved using systemic herbicides. In fact, the possibility that a single polyploid species might form more than once does not appear to have been discussed in any of the previous major reviews of polyploidy, including the highly influential discussions by Stebbins (1950, 1971) and Grant (1981). Plants possessing this pathway are usually anatomically distinct as well, having ‘Kranz’ anatomy, with a well-marked bundle sheath surrounding the vascular bundles and the chloroplasts concentrated in a ring of mesophyll cells radiating out from the sheath (Fig. alterniflora– fragment’ losses. Several other genetic processes can also apparently increase the fitness of invasive species. As the parental species were found to be genetically depauperate in Western Europe (Raybould et al., 1991b; Yannic, 2001; Yannic et al., 2004), S. anglica has resulted from either a unique hybridization event or from multiple events involving similar parental genotypes. However, given the strong emerging links between genetic background, evolutionary capacity, and invasion dynamics, it is clear that treating invasive species as uniform entities with fixed genotypes will fail to adequately capture their likely behavior when faced with changing environmental conditions and selection regimes. As this species is characterized by a particular ability to increase sediment accumulation, it has been introduced for land reclamation in several continents (China, Australia, New Zealand). Within Poole Harbour, there has been some debate as to the role Spartina anglica plays on the sediment accumulation of mudflats, e.g. Moreover, S. arundinacea and the analysed sample of S. densiflora were found to share a 426‐bp deletion in the chloroplast spacer trnT‐trnL. Journal Spartina gracilis has a wide distribution from Mexico to Canada where it occurs in plains and mountains regions at altitudes from sea level to 7200 feet. Spartina x townsendii arose during the end of the 19th century in England by hybridization between the indigenous Spartina maritima and the introduced Spartina alterniflora, native to the eastern seaboard of North America. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Colonizing patches of Spartina alterniflora on mudflats at Wilapa Bay, Washington, USA. It is in these bundle sheath cells that the malate or aspartate is decarboxylated, liberating CO2 to be re-fixed by Rubisco (Fig. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant. In this paper, we examine how these approaches have helped our understanding of speciation in the grass genus Spartina Schreb., where hybridization and polyploidy represent past and ongoing important evolutionary forces. This makes the plants able to tolerate a large range of climatic conditions in both hemispheres. A retrotransposon display approach indicated no burst of retroelement activation in the allopolyploid S. anglica (Baumel et al., 2002b). different methylation state of the restriction site in the parents, the hybrid and the allopolyploid) in S. × townsendii; only one methylation change (over 34) was specific to S. anglica, indicating that epigenetic changes are triggered by hybridization rather than by genome duplication. Flow cytometry and GISH reveal mixed ploidy populations and Spartina nonaploids with genomes of S. alterniflora and S. maritima origin. This procedure involves the use of two isoschizomers (MseI and HpaII) in parallel reactions. glabra Hampshire 1) and the early effects of genome duplication in the young (less than 150 yr old) allopolyploid populations of S. anglica that are expanding around the world (Ainouche et al., 2004). In Europe, hybridization with S. maritima resulted in S. × neyrautii (France) and S. × townsendii (England), with. Since C4 photosynthesis was initially discovered in and is largely confined to tropical plants, it was at first thought to be a distinct evolutionary line, but since both C3 and C4 species occur in single genera such as Atriplex (Björkman et al, 1971) and Euphorbia (Webster et al., 1975) this is obviously not so. via introgression) and speciation (at the homoploid or allopolyploid levels) in plants (Stebbins, 1950; Grant, 1971; Rieseberg, 1997). Hybridization and the colonization of novel habitats by annual sunflowers. Indeed, mounting evidence suggests that a range of genetic processes, even among small founder populations, can facilitate plant invasion of new habitats (Lee, 2002). 1940s–70s high SAR period coincides with an increase in the Zr/Rb ratio and MS suggesting a greater proportion of larger minerogenic material being supplied to Holes Bay (Fig. Interestingly, most changes are repeatable in both hybrids. Spartina anglica physically displaces many native indigenous low-growing halophytes (e.g., Selliera, Salicornia, Schoenus, Puccinellia) and modifies habitats formerly occupied by a range of bird, fish, and invertebrate species. Experience in the United Kingdom resulted in Spartina alterniflora and its derivatives (Spartina x townsendii, Spartina anglica) being widely planted in parts of North America, in regions occupied by native Spartina species, and in areas well outside its native range (e.g., Australia, and New Zealand) where they were similarly successful, especially Spartina anglica. in the sterile hybrid (Spartina 3 townsendii) gave rise to the new allopolyploid species S. anglica (2n 5 120, 122, and 124, according to Marchant 1968). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This suggests that there may be additional fitness advantages to polyploidy not obviously related to structural genomic changes. the natural polyploid, Spartina anglica, which has a stable karyotype). Additive genetic variance can be increased by conversion of epistatic or dominance variance by genetic drift following population bottlenecks; epistasis itself (interaction between different gene) provides a source of variance that could respond to selection pressure. Transcriptomic changes following recent natural hybridization and allopolyploidy in the salt marsh species Spartina × townsendii and Spartina anglica (Poaceae). Spartina species are tetraploid, hexaploid or dodecaploid perennials, most of them being native to the New World. This species has been introduced into North‐western United States, and Western Europe, where it hybridized with indigenous species (see below). Other temperate species, such as Jovibarba sobolifera, Sedum acre and several Sempervivum species have CAM (Osmond et al., 1975); all are succulent members of the family Crassulaceae, from which the syndrome takes its name. Spartina × caespitosa had a controversial status, displaying features that relate to both S. patens and S. pectinata. The aquatic pteridophyte Isoetes and the three unrelated aquatic angiosperm genera Crassula, Littorella and Alisma all exhibit CAM (Keeley, 1996) and clearly they do not suffer water deficits. CAM plants are often found in dry habitats where dark fixation is an advantage, as stomata can be closed in daytime and so conserve water. This results in the establishment of a new fertile sexually reproducing tetraploid species, S. anglica, with a full complement of chromosomes from S. maritima and S. alternifolia (AABB) that can produce normal gametes (ab). S. longispica, S. × caespitosa) or from incongruence between gene trees (S. densiflora from California). 1940–70 (Fig. Spartina argentinensis) which are characterized by a smooth and cylindrical panicle with numerous short and closely imbricate spikelets and which display usually hard and slender culms. After the hybridization site has been severely disturbed by land reclamation and airport construction, the survival of S. × neyrautii was questioned in the 1970s (Hubbard et al., 1978). High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in China. 1991). It quickly became apparent that Spartina townsendii, and particularly Spartina anglica, were markedly more invasive than either of the parent species. Spartina bakeri is found in Florida and Georgia. In fact many CAM species, particularly those in the Crassulaceae (e.g. Careful estimations of the divergence time between species from different ploidy levels should provide critical explanations to such issues. Very few polyploids that have been investigated with molecular markers are thought to have originated only once,2 and, therefore, multiple origins are now considered to be the rule in polyploid evolution (Soltis and Soltis, 1993, 1999). Hybridization is a recurrent theme in Spartina; the allododecaploid S. anglica (2n = 12x = 120) and the hybrid swarm in San Francisco Bay arose through the introductions of S. alterniflora into the range of native Spartina species. Other examples of recurrent polyploidy from the premolecular literature include species of Madia (Asteraceae) (Clausen et al., 1945), Gutierrezia (Asteraceae) (Solbrig, 1971), Mimulus (Scrophulariaceae) (Mia et al., 1964), and Rubus (Rosaceae) (Rozanova, 1938; see Mavrodiev and Soltis, 2001). Carbon dioxide fixation by PEP carboxylase is not in itself novel; it is the initial event of another photosynthetic syndrome known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), characteristic of desert succulents but also of a surprising range of other plant types (Ting, 1985) and it also occurs in non-photosynthetic tissues. . The declining δ13C value shows decreasing discrimination against the heavy carbon isotope in CO2, which indicates that RuBP carboxylase was no longer the primary CO2-fixing enzyme, Bas W. Borsje, ... Mindert B. de Vries, in Ecological Engineering, 2011. Spartina anglica is now widespread along the English coast and is highly successful. Early this century, estuarine stabilization to maintain commercial waterways and reclamation for industrial and agricultural development were seen as important goals of coastal management. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora is significant because of the rapid evolutionary process involved and the growing recognition of the biodiversity values of estuarine areas. The Biological Flora of Coastal Dunes and Wetlands: Spartina patens (W. Aiton) G.H. Spartina maritima is now extinct in both hybridization sites, and this species has been recently found remarkably genetically depauperate in Western Europe (Yannic et al., 2004). Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi‐site studies, focused meta‐analysis and invasion syndromes. Molecular Evidence for Natural Hybridization between Cotoneaster dielsianus and C. glaucophyllus. From an ecological standpoint, however, the most obvious feature of C4 photosynthesis is the greater water use efficiency it permits (cf. Epigenetics and its Implications for Plant Biology 2. During the 19 th and 20 th centuries, S. alterniflora, S. patens and S. anglica were inten-tionally or accidentally introduced outside their native rang- The second morphological complex contains species characterized by fleshy and succulent culms, spikelets less closely imbricate than those in the other complexes. The epigenetic alterations that might be encountered in the hybrids and the allopolyploid have been explored using Methylation Sensitive AFLP (MSAP; Reyna‐Lopez et al., 1997). Increased tolerance to organic xenobiotics following recent allopolyploidy in Spartina (Poaceae). The history of the Euro‐African S. maritima that is basal in the hexaploid lineage is an interesting and still open question: Yannic et al., 2003) hypothesized that current populations of S. maritima could actually represent a relic from a wider distribution of an ancestral hexaploid species, or alternatively, that S. maritima was introduced from North America to the Eastern Atlantic coast and subsequently vanished from the New World. The phylogenetic framework emerging from the recent approaches indicates that this genus displays various examples of disjunct distributions at different levels of the phylogeny. comm. Particular attention is devoted to the recent formation of the allododecaploid invasive Spartina anglica, a salt-marsh “ecosystem engineer” that resulted from hybridization between the hexaploid S. alterniflora (introduced from North America) and tetraploid S. maritima (a European native) and subsequent genome duplication of the F 1 hybrid S. x townsendii during the nineteenth century in … Canford Heath, a heathland area around Holes Bay, was used during WWII by the military, for mineral extraction (sand, clay and gravels) and illegal motorcycling after WWII, and was also subject to heath fires (Martin, J. Of course, not all introduced species benefit significantly from these genetic processes; for instance, some invasive NIPS are known to have limited genetic diversity and evolutionary capacity as a result of small founder population size. Why is this species able to colonize mudflats that other saltmarsh species do not? By comparing the subgenomes in the hybrids and the allopolyploid to the parental … 2.22; Winter et al., 1978). The ‘Epigenetic Epiphany’: Epigenetics, Evolution and Beyond. The first one is composed of all hexaploid species that belong to the morphological Complex 2 of Mobberley (1956): the Euro‐African S. maritima, the East‐American S. alterniflora and the West American S. foliosa. A flow cytometry analysis (Baumel et al., 2003) revealed that this hybrid has the same ploidy level as S. × townsendii, that is, half the DNA content of the allopolyploid S. anglica. Spartina bakeri and Spartina patens are two morphologically similar species. The recent natural rapid evolution of the amphiploid perennial salt marsh grass, Spartina anglica, provides an example of allopolyploid speciation (Raybould et al., 1991).

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